NEW BRITAIN MUSEUM OF AMERICAN ART

Vistas del Sur: 
Traveler Artists’ Landscapes of Latin America from the Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Collection

January 20, 2017–April 16, 2017

Frederic Edwin Church, Cotopaxi, 1853, Oil on canvas, 9 3/4 x 14 1/2 inches

Vistas del Sur features more than 150 rarely seen paintings, photographs, works on paper, and books dating from 1638 to 1887, that trace the evolution of Latin American landscapes by artists from Europe and the Americas. This presentation represents the NBMAA’s first collaboration with the Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Collection, and is a variation of the acclaimed exhibition, Boundless Reality, which premiered in New York City at the Americas Society Art Gallery and the Bertha and Karl Leubsdorf Gallery at Hunter College in 2015. Spanning the Museum’s Stitzer Family Gallery, Robert and Dorothy Vance Gallery, and Richard and Virginia McKernan Gallery, the exhibition will occupy the largest footprint of an NBMAA exhibition to date, and will be the first bilingual presentation at the Museum, offering text in English and Spanish.

Derived from the collection Traveler Artists to Latin America, which Gustavo Cisneros and Patricia Phelps de Cisneros began in 1997, Vistas del Sur features artists such as Frederic Edwin Church, Martin Johnson Heade, Frans Post, Auguste Morisot, Camille Pissarro, José María Velasco, and Marc Ferrez, among others, whose depictions of the New World range from romanticized scenes based on Western conventions; to directly observed illustrations of travel and expeditions; and scientific records of botanical, zoological, and ethnographic phenomena. The works attest to the ways in which traveler artists experienced Latin America, and the challenges they faced in reconciling preconceived ideals with the aesthetic realities they encountered.

Organized in collaboration with the Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros and Hunter College, the exhibition is curated by Dr. Harper Montgomery, the Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Professor of Latin American Art at Hunter College, New York, and students from her 2015 master’s course, Curatorial Practicum: Subjectivity and the Nineteenth-Century Latin American Landscape.

The exhibition is accompanied by the catalogue Traveler Artists: Landscapes of Latin America from the Patricia Phelps de Cisneros Collection, an authoritative volume on the early history of landscape painting in Latin America, edited by Dr. Katherine Manthorne.

Frederic Edwin Church

Frederic Edwin Church was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. He was a central figure in the Hudson River School of American landscape painters. While committed to the natural sciences, he was “always concerned with including a spiritual dimension in his works“. The family wealth came from Church’s father, Joseph Church, a silversmith and watchmaker in Hartford, Connecticut.(Joseph subsequently also became an official and a director of The Aetna Life Insurance Company) Joseph, in turn, was the son of Samuel Church, who founded the first paper mill in Lee, Massachusetts in the Berkshires, and this allowed him(Frederic) to pursue his interest in art from a very early age. At eighteen years of age, Church became the pupil of Thomas Cole in Catskill, New York after Daniel Wadsworth, a family neighbor and founder of the Wadsworth Atheneum, introduced the two. In May 1848, Church was elected as the youngest Associate of the National Academy of Design and was promoted to Academician the following year. Soon after, he sold his first major work to Hartford’s Wadsworth Atheneum.

Church settled in New York where he taught his first pupil, William James Stillman. From the spring to autumn each year Church would travel, often by foot, sketching. He returned each winter to paint and to sell his work.

In 1853 and 1857, Church traveled in South America. One trip was financed by businessman Cyrus West Field, who wished to use Church’s paintings to lure investors to his South American ventures. Church was inspired by the Prussian explorer Alexander von Humboldt’s Cosmos and his exploration of the continent; Humboldt had challenged artists to portray the “physiognomy“ of the Andes.

Two years after returning to America, Church painted The Heart of the Andes (1859), now in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, at the Tenth Street Studio in New York City. It is more than five feet high and nearly ten feet in length. Church unveiled the painting to an astonished public in New York City in 1859. The painting’s frame had drawn curtains fitted to it, creating the illusion of a view out a window. The audience sat on benches to view the piece and Church strategically darkened the room, but spotlighted the landscape painting. Church also brought plants from a past trip to South America to heighten the viewers’ experience. The public were charged admission and provided with opera glasses to examine the painting’s details. The work was an instant success. Church eventually sold it for $10,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a work by a living American artist.

Church showed his paintings at the annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design, the American Art Union, and at the Boston Art Club, alongside Thomas Cole, Asher Brown Durand, John F. Kensett, and Jasper F. Cropsey. Critics and collectors appreciated the new art of landscape on display, and its progenitors came be to called the Hudson River School.

In 1860 Church bought a farm in Hudson, New York and married Isabel Carnes. Both Church’s first son and daughter died in March, 1865 of diphtheria, but he and his wife started a new family with the birth of Frederic Joseph in 1866. When he and his wife had a family of four children, they began to travel together. In 1867 they visited Europe and the Middle East, allowing Church to return to painting larger works.

Before leaving on that trip, Church purchased the eighteen acres (73,000 m2) on the hilltop above his Hudson farm-land he had long wanted because of its magnificent views of the Hudson River and the Catskills. In 1870 he began the construction of a Persian-inspired mansion on the hilltop and the family moved into the home in the summer of 1872. Richard Morris Hunt was the architect for Cosy Cottage at Olana, and was consulted early on in the plans for the mansion, but after the Church’s trip to Europe and what is now Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Syria, Jordan and Egypt, the English architect Calvert Vaux was hired to complete the project. Church was deeply involved in the process, even completing his own architectural sketches for its design. This highly personal and eclectic castle incorporated many of the design ideas that he had acquired during his travels.

Olana State Historic Site is now owned and operated by the New York State Office of Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation, Taconic Region and receives extensive support from The Olana Partnership, a private, non-profit organization.

The main house is open to the public for guided tours. A visitor center offers a film and panel exhibit as well as a Museum Shop, operated by The Olana Partnership, offering books and many items inspired by the exotic locales of Church’s travels and paintings. The grounds are open year-round, 8am-sunset, for hiking, picnicking, snowshoeing or just enjoying the view.